Monopoly is a board game in which players compete against each other in buying, renting and trading properties to build wealth using play money. Players roll a dice and take turns moving around the outer edges of the board, following the instructions of each part of the board they land on. If they land on property belonging to another player, they will have to pay rent from their stash of play money. They may have to pick up game cards from the centre of the board, which could contain a reward or punishment. There is one part of the board that puts players in jail.
The history of the game dates back to 1905, when a Quaker lady named Maggie Phillips designed the game in an attempt to explain the single tax theory of Henry George. Others made changes to the game and finally a commercial form of the game was designed by Charles Darrow and sold by Parker Brothers.
There are two editions of this popular board game – one for the US and one for the UK. The US version centres on properties named after locations in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The British version focuses on locations in London, England. Both editions are played in the same manner.
Each player in the game has a small token to use to identify his/her place on the board. There are two six-sided dice and title deeds for the various properties. The properties include:
- 22 streets. They are grouped in twos or threes and are colour codes. A player must own all the properties in one colour in order to build houses or hotels on them.
- 4 railway stations. The amount of rent a player collects depends on the number of railway stations that he/she owns.
- 2 utility companies.
Each player receives a supply of play money at the beginning of the game. There are wooden or plastic houses and hotels and a deck of 16 Chance cards and a deck of 16 Community Cards. These cards can contain such things as Get Out of Jail Free or fines for various events, such as Pay School Fees £150.
Each player places his/her token at Go and receives £1500 to start. The specific designation of the money is:
- Two x £500
- Four x £100
- One x £50
- One x £20
- Two x £10
- One x £5
- Five x £1
Players take turns rolling the dice and moving the appropriate number of spaces around the board. When a player lands on a property he/she can choose to buy it and start building. In order to own a street, a player has to own all the streets in that colour. The rent charged to other players landing on properties raises according to the number of buildings or hotels it has. Players who run out of money can mortgage their properties to the bank, but when there is no more money left in the bank then players have to negotiate with each other. However all developments must be sold before a property can be mortgaged.
Usually the player with the most money is the winner of the game or when one player bankrupts the others. The game of Monopoly can go on for days